St. Keverne - Parish Topography
From The Original Documents and Personal Investigations
by Charles Henderson, M.A.
(Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford)
St. Keverne, the largest parish in West Cornwall, lies in that part of the Hundred of Kerrier popularly known as the Meneage. It contains 10,500 acres. In 1842 when the parish was surveyed for the Tithe Commutation, 5,751 acres were found to be arable, 4,170 downs, moors and waste, and only 13 woodland (1). The proportion of cultivated land to waste still remains much the same, but the woodland has been increased by the plantations of the Williams family at Lanarth,Rosuic, Roscarnan etc. The West part of the parish, including part of Goonhilly Downs, and the South, including Crowza Downs are thickly strewn with diallage rock. There are remains of primitive man on the Downs such as hut circles, barrows and megaliths, but the oldest farm settlements are ranged along the valley of the Durra going north east to Gillan Creek and the valleys of the streams which enter the sea at Porthallow and Porthoustock. The word Lis, a court or centre of jurisdiction, is found in Lesneage or Lesmeneage, "the Capital of Meneage", and in Lestowder, perhaps "the Court of Teudar", a King of Cornwall in the 6th Century. Trelease (Trelis) "the Court Town" adjoins Lesneage. Lan, or Monastery, the religious equivalent of Lis, is found in Lanheverne (Lan-akeveran) the old name of St.Keverne, and, perhaps, in Lanarth, but this is doubtful. Kestel, a castle, occurs in Kestle-Merris on the Downs, Kestle-Kears on Manacles point, and the Kestle-Menack in Rosecarnon. Dinas, a fortress, in Dinas near Blackhead; but these words refer to prehistoric strongholds (2). Thirty seven place names contain the word Tre(v), "a family settlement". The older of these are probably those containing personal names such as Tregellest or Tregonan. The others, like Trevean ("little town"),Trenance ("valley town"), Trenoweth ("new town") seem to date from a later time when the Trev had lost its personal or tribal significance. Bod or Bos,(3) another ancient word for a human settlement is only found once, viz, Boscarnan 'the house on the Cam' (4) Ty or Chy, (5) a house, occurs in the names of seven small holdings, all in the same part of the parish and all apparently descriptive in character viz: Chynhale,Chynhalls,Chyreen,Chymblo,Chyvrane,Chywednack and Chywoon. The other farm names are, in origin, not those of settlements but of natural features. In these, the words Pen, a top or end; Res, a ford; Ros, a heath; Forth, a port; Pol, a pool; Cam or Carnan, a rocky crag; Carek, a rock; Hal, a moor, etc., are most common. These places were originally waste land on the borders of the Trevs. The only complete list of field names is to be found in the Tithe Award of 1842. At this date about a tenth of the fields possessed Cornish names. As a large part of the parish was not enclosed from the waste until after the 16th Century, when Cornish ceased to be generally spoken, many fields have never had any but English names. In other cases the Cornish names have given place to English. The Tithe Award is not a very reliable record, as the proofs were carelessly read, but I have been obliged to use it as a basis of this survey, and have checked it where possible by such older estate maps and surveys as I can find. There are still a few old people in St.Keverne who know the field names by tradition uncontaminated by printed forms, and from these I have made many enquiries. Their number is steadily decreasing and in a few years time this valuable link with the Cornish tongue will be broken forever. If traditional pronunciation is essential for the elucidation of field names, original documents going back to the Middle Ages are equally essential for that of place names. In this survey I have used all the documentary evidence that I can find and have arranged the old spellings of each name in chronological order. I have not ventured to suggest more than a few interpretations. Some of these I owe to the kindness of Mr.R.M.Nance, and these are distinguished by his initials. I should like to express my gratitude to him for these valuable suggestions, also to Mr.Henry Jenner for kindly reading through this paper and to Dr.Stephens and Mr.J.N.Rosewarne for practical assistance in surveying the parish. ********************************************************************* 1. In spite of the tradition that the oak used in St.Keverne Church was grown on Crowza Downs, the word Coed or Couse, wood, does not occur once in the place names of the parish. Gilly "a grove", is found in one or two instances only. 2. Though Kestel must in origin imply a castle its meaning in Cornish place names may be little more than house. 3. The word Tre(v) is common all over Cornwall but Bod, though common is not evenly distributed. 4. In Welsh Carnan means a heap (R.M.N) 5. Ty is found in its old form in certain place names of capital importance,e.g. Tehidy, Tywarnhayle, Tywardreath. Chy, however, the same word is always applied to small holdings of later creation. The most important sources of information are indicated in the text, but they may be conveniently summarised as follows(those marked * have been printed; the rest are in MS): a)*The Anglo Saxon Charters of 967,977 and 1059 relating to Lesneage, Traboe, etc, in the Library of Exeter Cathedral. b) The Cartulary of St.Michael's Mount contains 12th and 13th century Charters about Lesneage; at Hatfield House. c) Court Rolls,Surveys etc, of the Manor of Traboe from 1400 - 1700 at Trewarthenick. d) Survey of the Reskymer lands in Meneage,1318, at Public Record Office (PRO). e) Survey of the Reskymer Manors of Meneage,Lucy's etc, in 1506. penes C.H. f)*Ancient Deeds 12th-15th C of the Reskymer estate, P.R.O. g) Rolls of the 13th C Charters relating to Lanheverne and Tregoning; penes C.H. h) Rental of Tregarne Manor,1659; penes C.H. i) Survey of the Vyvyan Estate,1810, with lists of fields. j) Court Rolls,Surveys,etc of the Manor of Reskymer Meneage from 1400; penes C.H. k) Various Records in the P>R.O such as Assize Rolls,Patent Rolls, *Feet of Fines,*Inquisitions post mortem,etc. l) Rate Book of 1720 in the Parish Chest,giving list of tenements in the 'Turns'. m) Map of the Robartes Estate,1960 at Lanhydrock. n) Map of Truthans Manor,1767; at Trefusis. o) Map of Reskymer Meneage Manor,1812; penes C.H. p) Parish Map 1840; copy at Diocesan Registry,Truro, with *Tithe Award q)*0rdnance Survey Maps (6). THE MENEAGE. (Amanech 1090,Manech or Manacich 1090,Menaoch 1318, Manahec 1281,Manek 1417,1431).probably "the Monkish land", from Managh = a monk(l). The Meneage is now considered to include the twelve parishes that form the whole of the Lizard peninsula, and this was the view taken by C.S.Gilbert in his Survey of Cornwall, 1820. Old people, however, and old records are inclined to confine the term to the N.E. part of the peninsula only viz,to the five parishes of Mawgan in Meneage,St.Martin in Meneage, Manaccan, St.Anthony in Meneage, and St.Keverne. Lesneage, for Lesmeneage, (Lesmanaoc 967, Lismanehec 1099),now a farm in St. Keverne, was clearly the Lis, or Capital of Meneage. The word Meneage (Managhek) also seems to occur in the name Manacles applied to the well known headland and rocks in the St.Keverne parish. Manacles may well stand for Managhek - als = Meneage Cliff or Point. Manaccan also appears to contain the word Managh, and Minster, the alternative (Saxon) name of the Church town, shows that some sort of Celtic monastery existed there after the Saxon Conquest. An account of the Manor of Meneage - Reskymer will be found in this survey under Treliever. l.Treveneage, anciently Trevanaek, and Brevanneck in St.Hilary near Marazion, seem to contain the word Managhec. ST. KEVERNE (St.Achebrannus of Lannachebran, 1085; St.Akeveranus, 1201; St.Akevranus 1278; St.Akeferan 1295; St.Kaveran 1236; St.Kyeran 1240; St.Kyeran 1265; St.Kieran 1280; St.Keveren 1580). The true form of the name of the patron Saint of St.Keverne appears to have been Akeveran. In the 13th century an attempt was made to identify him with the better known Irish Saint, Kierian (1). This attempt was, perhaps, due to the Cistercians of Beaulieu who acquired the Church circa 1230, and whose sister houses in Southern Ireland would have made them well acquainted with St.Ciaran or Kieran. At the Reformation, however, the popular and more correct spelling, Keveran or Keverne, came back again. That St.Keverne was an important religious centre in Celtic times, a Lan or Monastery, is proved by the name Lanheverne still attached to the lands on on which the Church and village stand and by the reference in Domesday (1085) to these lands having belonged before and after the Conquest of 1066 to the "Canons of St.Achebrannus" although recently seized by the Count of Mortain. By this usurpation the collegiate character of the Church was lost. It became the parish church of a large parochial area which we may suppose was assigned to it circa 1100. The church lands fell to the Crown when William, Count of Mortain, forfeited his estates for rebellion in 1106. The patronage of the Church appears to have passed with the Earldom of Cornwall when Henry III conferred it on his brother Richard in 1225. A few years later Earl Richard, wishing to add to the endowment of the Cistercian Abbey of Beaulieu in the New Forest which his father had founded, conferred upon it the Church of St.Keveran with its lands and tithes. The benefice was a Rectory at the time and in 1235 the Abbey obtained Pope Gregory IX's license to appropriate its revenues. The Rector, one Bartholomew, objected to this as contrary to the Canon which allowed appropriation only if the religious house needed money to enlarge its numbers or to increase its hospitality. The Abbey, however, had powerful friends and continued to keep its valuable prize. In 1269 a Vicarage with cure of souls was established and a permanent division of the revenues was made between the Vicars and the Abbey as rector and patron. In 1288 the Papal Assessment for the rectory was £22.13s.4d as compared with £4.6s.8d. for the vicarage. Thus four fifths of the tithes paid by the parishioners went to a distant monastery. These included the valuable tithes of fish. In 1842 the tithes were commuted at £1,674, of which the vicar received £512 and the lay impropriators £1,162. The Abbey recovered, also, the old Church lands which had fallen into lay hands, viz. in St.Akeveran (or Lanheverne) and Tregonan. The latter became a Barton or Grange of the Abbey and finally a Cell of Monks was established there, (see Tregonan). It is impossible to determine how the limits of St.Keverne parish were evolved. For the most part they follow neither natural nor manorial boundaries of any importance. A parish is generally a tithe- paying area, of which one or more Lords of Manors in feudal times determined the limits. The manorial history of St.Keverne is very confused. The Anglo-Saxon Charters referring to Lesneage (967), Traboe (977 and 1059), etc, seem to have no relation to subsequent territorial arrangements. There was no paramount Manor. Domesday (1085) does not help us, for of the four places in St.Keverne named therein as Manors, viz. Trenant (Trenance),Trenbras,Roscarnon and Relant (Trelan) only the last remained a manor in later years. On the other hand Rosuic, or Lucy's, Traboe, Trenowith,Rosnython, and Meneage or Treliever, which appear as considerable manors and as Tithings or police divisions of the Hundred of Kerrier before 1283,are not mentioned in Domesday. As early as the 16th Century and probably long before it, the parish, on account of its great size was divided into four unequal districts called Turns(2): namely Turn-Bean (or 'Little') including the Church Town, and the coast from Porthoustock to Coverack, Turn-Tregarne on the N.E. with the coast from Porthoustock to Lestowder, Turn-Traboe on the N.W. from Treleage to Dry Tree, and Turn-Trelan on the S.W with the coast from Coverack to Kennack. The last two were the largest in area and all four met near the Church town. these divisions are still known and used for some parochial purposes (3) The word Turn is not found elsewhere in Cornwall. It is possibly derived from the Latin quaterni. The population of the parish in 1910 was 1,913 and in 1801- 2,104. In 1377 -574 people paid the Poll tax in St.Kefran,implying a total population of about 900. It was by far the most populous parish in Kerrier, Breage the next having but 195 payers and Helston 188. The chief centres of population are the Church Town, Coverack, Porthallow and Porthoustock. The last three are fishing villages. Of these Porthallow was the chief in the Middle Ages. The Church town contained a dozen houses in Leland's time(1535), so that the place was already a village, which was not usual among Cornish "Church- towns" at that date. St.Keverne was, like Beaulieu, a privileged Sanctuary, but how far the limits of the Sanctuary extended is not recorded, though Leland's remark "ther (sic) is a Sanctuary with x or xii dwelling houses" suggests that it included the Church town. Traboe is a small hamlet on the edge of the Downs. There have been at one time and another 12 corn mills in the parish, viz, Pengarrick,Tregarne, and Mill Mehall on the Porthallow Stream; Godrevy,Polcoverack,Downas,Tregidden,Polkernogo,Trelease and Trelauvean; the last four being on the Durra stream. Only the Pengarrick mill is still working. These mills served various manors, whose tenants were compelled to grind their corn at them by manorial custom. There was a 'Tucking Mill' or fulling mill for cloth at Tregidden above the corn mill and at Chyreen is a field name, 'Vellanvens', which suggests that a windmill once stood there. Ancient chapels are recorded at Lestowder (St.John Baptist 1403),Tregowris (St.James),Traboe, Trelease, Chynalls and Gwenter. The chapels appear to have been for the convenience of parishioners and not oratories attached to manor houses, a Lazar House is recorded at Nanclegy near Mill Mehall in the 13th century. The words Crowz,'a cross', enters into several field names and place names but only one cross remains, a fine monolith in a field at Trelanvean. There is the socket of a cross lying by the roadside at Zoar and another in a rock on the Down west of Kestle Merris. The roads and lanes of the parish remain much as they have always been. Some are mentioned in the Anglo Saxon Charters, such as the ridgeway from the Deadman through Tregowris to Gillan Creek. This is called a 'Herepath', or 'Military Road' in 967 and it is, in places a parish boundary, another proof of its antiquity. A century ago every farm in the parish had its Church way (4) or field path leading toward the church town, but some of these are no longer used. 1. The name Funten Keren (i.e. St.Keran's Well) occurs in a local Charter of 1290 but is no longer known. 2. Tern Trelan in 1566 3. The extent of the Turns can be studied in the Parish Rates Books of the 18th C. 4. In Cornish Forth Eglos or Vor-eglos hence the field name Vrigles or Wrigglers at Lesneage and elsewhere. ST. KEVERNE PARISH. SURVEY. (N.B. the numbers after the Field names refer to the Key in the Appendix). ANHEA (Anhech 1317,Anhee 1486,Heya 1590,Anhea 1596)= the enclosure. Several places in Cornwall bear the name of Hay or An-hea e.g. in Gunwalloe,Madron,Gerrans,etc which seems to be derived from the Anglo Saxon word Hay, "an enclosure" with the Cornish definite article An, "the". The name is thus a hybrid and the places so called are probably not older than the 12th C. Anhea was one of the farms belonging to the Manor of Traboe. q.v. Fields: Park Grous (1),Drysock(2)Hay-vean(Little Hay),Park an drea(3)Roundabout,Cothon or Cothans,Lapean (=? Nanspyghan,Little Valley),Mellenden,Gear (=An+caer,the Castle. There are remains of a circular entrenchment in this field). ARROWAN (Arauon 1311 and 1318,Arrawen 1652,Arrawan 1720). This name is not found elsewhere in Cornwall. The place lies high above the cliff. In 1318 it was held under the Manor of Trelan. In 1650 it belonged to John Godolphin, of Dartmouth, in right of his wife, the daughter and heiress of John Tregosse,Esq., as part of the Manor of Trewothack. From a survey made in 1715 (a)we gain these field names: Park an drea (2),Park an Mowhay,Park an vounder,Dorrheire(5) Park an garrack (6),Park Skeber (7),Park Noweth (8),Park Henvor (=? Hen- forth,old road). Park Hare (=Long field),Parke Gweale Eva, Park and Crow (=?Hut f.),Park Behednoe,Croft Methednoe,Park Methednoe,(b) The Algates. To these the Tithe Award of 1842 adds: Mustow f,Vean garrick (6),Ergers Croft,Vogo (see Voage, a tenement in Arrowan),Hoy garden,Durden,Pellars Croft (9),Cleaver Croft, Derdrew,Vineyard (31) and the Plain. BAHOW, now a field in Trelanvean (Le Bahow and Baehow 1250,Baghow 1318,Park an Bahoe (1625). In this field, once a separate holding, were many prehistoric graves, suggesting that the name is derived from Bedhow='graves'.In one of these was found the Celtic bronze mirror now in the British Museum. (Baghow means 'dungeons'. Grave pits may have suggested the name. R.M.N.) BARGWITHA (Berguthyr 1311,Boregwithen 1720,Barguitho 1803).A small holding on the cliff above Carragloose or Lankidden headland; possibly from Barged-lyr,'the jutting out land'. There is a Bargotha (Bargoythou 1270) in St.Stephens in Branel. See also Hengither in St.Keverne. Field names: P-Hoylw,P-Rogers,P-Nees,Pellars Croft(9) P in Venton (10) and Carn-spernic (='thorny Cam'). BOSCARNON (Boskernan 1295,1311,1327,Boskarnon 1720). The only instance of the word Bod or Bos, 'a dwelling' in St.Keverne. Carnon which is also found in Roscarnan implies a rock pile (Welsh Carnan) R.M.N. Fields - Dore f(5),Hayle Down (11) CARNELLAS (Carnellas 1280,1332,Karnellas 1318,Cornellis 1720. A very rocky holding on the cliff near Lowland Point Cam = Crag. CARNO (Carnhogh 1318,1350,Carnhough 1810) pron.with accent on second syllable, = Hog's Crag or possibly Barrow Crag (Hoga). CARNPESSACK (Karpesel 1230,Carpesek 1300,Carnpesek 1505,Corpessack 1710). This seems to be Car, 'a Castle', rather than Cam ' a crag'.Pesek seems to occur in Trempessick in Veryan. CARNSULLAN, near Coverack (Kaersuiek 1285,Carsulek 1318,Carsulek 1390,Cursullan 1720). Here again Cam seems to have usurped the place of Car. In 1810 fields bore the names of Goon-vean(14),Park Sea,P- Drysack(2),P in Venton (10),P an Chy =( field near the house),Lan an mennor (?Lyn an meneth,'Pool on the hill'), and Gullanvease (?Gweal a ves,'the outer field'). In 1840 (as North Corner): Croft Trything,P-Lees,Gew.The Slibot,Rowpock,Gullvean,P-Venton,The Plain,Shipping Port,Gilly (21),Jones' Croft,The Weith (26),Eaver grass. The Venden Cock. CHENHALE new Rosenython (Chynal 1318,Chuynhale 1720)=Chy'nhal,' the house on the moor',cf.Chyanhal in Paul,Chynhale in Perran,etc. In 1767 a field near the site of Godrevy Mill was called Loranvellan.i.e. Lowarth an velyn,'the garden of the mill'. Fields; Vounder (4)and Park Pavey. CHYMBLO (Chyenblogh 1318,Chiambloghe 1625,Chymbloith 1710 and Chemblogh 1720. Chy,'house',an 'of the' Blogh? cf., Namplogh in Cury. CHYNHALLS (Tyenals 1280,Chienals 1311,Chynals Wyot 1327). Ty or Chy 'house'',y'n 'opn the'. Alls 'cliff Fields P Bean (12), Weath (26), P.Willis,P.Parrow. CHYREEN WARRA (15) (Chywarnruyan and Chywarnruan Wollas 1543). ?Chy war an ryn 'house on the ridge'.cf., Chyreen in Sithney, formerly Chywarren. Fields in 1810: P Vain (12),P an Drea (3),Vellan Vens (?Velyn-wens windmill),P an Patrick, P Davas (sheep f). CHYVRANE, now merged in Truthans,(Chyvran and Chyanvran 1270,Tyenvran 1280,1350,Chienvran 1311,Cheverain 1780) ?Chy an Vran 'House of the Crow' cf Nyvrane. CHYWEDNACK (Chywynyek 1327,?Gueneck 1327,Chuywednack 1720) =?'House on the Marsh', cf Arwennack in Budock,Trewennack in Wendron,Penwennack in St. Agnes. CHYWOON (Chywoon 1720) = Chy an woen 'house on the Down' a common name in Cornwall. Fields: Croft Oliver, The Praze (13) Gulley Orchard COBELLAN, near Traboe (1658) no longer known. CONGWIDNAN, now Polgwidnan, a tenement without a homestead near Tregarne. (Congwynnyon 1613,Congwinian 1710,Congwidnon 1810). In 1810 there were fields called Park Creese (16) Gew(17) and Park Roy. Also Clugea Lane leading to Mill Mehall (see Nanclegy). cf., Clodgy Lane,near Helston, at Polwheverai in Constantine,Mewdon in Mawnan etc. In 'dodgy', ' clugea','elegy', we probably have, writes Mr.R.M.Nance, cla'jy for clavjy = claf + chy,' lazar house'. W.clafdy. This suggestion is supported by the fact that the 'Lazar house of Nanclegy' is named in the 13th C. See Nanglegy. COVERACK - The name of this fishing village is derived from Porth- Coverack,now Polcoverack, the name of the adjacent farm q.v. The name Covrak,per se, occurs in the Parish Register for 1588. (The th of Forth accounts for the change to c of the g in govrak, 'abundant in flowing water, gover, a stream' R.M.N) COWIJACK (Kowedik 1311,Kywydic 1321,Kewodyk 1327,Cewesik 1318, Cowissack 1720,Kywedjack 1810) ? The same as Welsh Cenedig,'hollowed', 'excavated'. Fields - In 1810 P Grows (1), P Attra.P Bean (12),Gew Veria or Vallow (17,P Crees (16),P Gullas (19),P an Drain (20),P Venton (10),P West,Halligy (see Tregarne) P Perrin, Coplings f. CRENHOC, near Tregaminion (Crenhoc 1260) no longer known. CROFT AN CROW in Treliever (Croft an Crow alias Priscan 1621) 'Croft of the Hut' CROWZA DOWNS pron. Crosea and Crewsha (Crouswrah 967,Crouswrach 977,Crowsah 1810 ? for Crows Wragh 'the hag's Cross', cf. Crowz an Wragh near the Lands End. Ponswrag (? 'Hag's Bridge') is named in Trevalso in 1318. The place Crowza seems to be at St Keverne Beacon, where the roads meet, but the name is now applied loosely to the Downs further West and even to a small holding between Trelanvean and Kenhewas. It is also used to denote a special kind of stone. Pedney Crousha (i.e. 'the end of the Crowza') the name of a field at Penvounder, shows that Crowza Down was held to extend as far South as that. DOWNAS a deep valley and cove below Ponsangath; perhaps from Du-nans. 'Black Valley', a name very suitable to its appearance. Black Head is close by. Mr.Jenner suggests 'deep valley', cf Dyfnaint,the Welsh name for Devonshire. GILLY TREGOD (Kelly Tregod 1311,1318,Gilly Tregod 1720). Gilly = An Kelly. 'the Grove'. Although this farm lies on a rocky cliff, a sheltered strip is still called 'the Grove'. Tregod recalls the ownership of the Tregos family in the Middle Ages. Fields: Vinock (18),Cost lost (25). GODREVY (Godrevi Mill 1280,Godrevy 1318,1810). 'The huts', plural of Godref. cf Godrevy in Gwithian. This mill stood near the shore below Rosenython, of which it was the manor mill. See Chenhale. GOON GARTHEW (Goen wordu 1250,Goen moerdou 1357,Goen varthue 1506,Goen berdue 1520,Goon Carthew alias Crowsa 1624,Goen garthew 1641,Goen gorthew 1670). This seems to have been an alternative name for part of Crowza Downs but is no longer known. Goon = 'Down'. GOONHILLY (Guaenelegh 1288,Goenhili 1290,Gounhely 1526,Goonehillye 1655) possibly Goonughella, 'the higher down', cf Brown Willy,'the higher hill'. Mr.Jenner suggests Goonhelghya, 'hunting down' which seems more in accordance with the old spellings. GRUGATH (Crucwaeth 977,Grofuth 1302,Grugoed 1318,and Grugith 1720) ?Cruc-goth 'mole hill,' cf Grogath in Cornelly near Tregony, Cruk Heyth in the Ordinalia and Criccieth in Caernarvon. Fields: Croft an garreck,Pengilly (21),Kennego, the Gew and Well Gew (17),P Menor (22),P Bean (12),P Ponds (23) P Kitchen,? Vellan (24),Dar Vrooth (=?'Fruit land'), P an Jamos,Cost an Coage (? for Croft an Cog (a)'Cuckoo's Croft'),.Caverlo, Coving Croft,Moorhops (b),P Warra (15),Crous levan (pron.Crushlevan). In the charter of King Edgar, AD977 the boundaries of Grugath are thus described:This is the land mark to Crucwaeth. First at Nantbuorthtel (Nan='Valley', cf also W.Buarth = 'cattle fold' and tel, ' a drawn line' R.M.N. This place, no longer known, must be where the two streams meet on the N.side of the farmland along the stream to Lenbrunn (='Pool of Rushes'. This is named also in the Lesneage Bounds q.v. and was probably at the head of the stream in Trevean plantation), then on to Cestel-Merit (now Kesle Merris. See also the Lesneage Bounds 967), then West to Wucou-Genidor (probably an error for Crucou 'Barrows' cf Crucou Merethen in the Lesneage Charter),West and along the dike, on the brook then on to Fonton Morgeonec (Fonton='Spring',probably the spring in the field between Grugath and Roskilly). Then on down to the brook where it first was. These bounds appear to include the whole of Grugath, now divided into three farms, and a considerable piece of the downs. GWENTER (Wynter 1263,1300,Wenter 1321, Gwinter 1720)PGwintyr,'White land', cf Windsor (Wynter 1327) A small hamlet on the edge of Goonhilly. Fields in 1810 P Vellan (24),Gew (17) Cost lost (25,Weith(26,Park Chappel an ancient chapel stood on Gwinter Praze or Green), The Bears,Enbalm. HALWYN (Penhalwyn 1285,Hallwin 1790, ? 'end of White Moor, cf Polwyn in Cury and Colan formerly Penhalwyn. Fields - Lousey Bushey, The Round (an entrenchment is in this field), Kitty Bodden, Park an Jets (? Gate f). Ludder Scroggan or Latter Scraggan. HENGITHER now meraed in Tregowri-s (Hengeyther _1318^150fi:HengeT,t-be.': 1540,Angither 1710 and Nangither 1720 and i840),cf Nangithat in Budock (Engeyther 1538)=? 'the old enclosure', cf Welsh Caeth,enclosed. See Bargwither. KENHEWAS OR KERNHEWAS (Kinihavot 1250,Kynnyavos 1358 and 1504,Kynyhavos 1350,Kenewas 1684). Kynyaf == 'Autumn and Bos = house,i.e. Autumn Pasture (c). The word Havot,01d Cornish for Summer Pasture, became Havos in Middle and Hewas in late Cornish. Kenhewas stands high on the edge of Goonhilly Downs. Field names of Kenhewas and Roscrogy: Hythens (? for Park an Eythyn, 'furze', Nuttas Croft,Gew (17),Bowgie (27),P-Darrows (28, the Praze (13),P Venton (10) P Harry,Ralphs Water, P Skebow (7), P an guidnow (Pgwidden,'whice f in 1810),P an garrack (6) Hennessey's f. Among the Ancient Deeds in the PRO are several 13th C Charters relating to the Moors near Kenhewas. (A.8999) Circa 1250 Robert,Breto Lord of Trelan, granted to Osbert de Landa the Moor above the vill of Kinihavot as far as Cruewrescoc (Cruc=Barrow) and thence to the head of the Moor between Roscroudy (Roscrogy) Kinyavot and the vill of Cruewrescoc, thence to the great Barrow (Hoga) opposite Le Bahow (Trelan Bahow), and so to the great stone below the barrow and then along the valley to the head of the dike between Kinihavot and Trelanbichan and below that dike to certain muternae and from those to one great Butemeium next to Trelanbichan and from that, by the bounds made to the Water of Rescroudi. The deed is endorsed Gonehanok. In another Charter dated 1285 (A. 9489) Desiderata relict of Walter called Bleyt of Roscreugi granted to Thomas de Trelanbihan, the right to make a mill 1 eat to Trelanbihan Mill through Roscreugi land. A map (1812) of a piece of Croft belonging to the Manor of Reskymer Meneage, lying a little S.W. of Kenhewas shows Cam vrathan Rocks (=Crows Cam) now planted with a Fox Govert, the Turf cutter's Well to the West of it and 'Main Mellon or the Yellow Rock 'on the parish boundary, where the commons of six estates meet, near Croft Pascoe pool. See further sub Traboe. KESTLE MERRIS, generally called Kistles (Cestell Merit 967,Kestell Merys 1526). A small holding in Crowza Downs. Kestel=Castle, but there are no remains of any earth works, though the place stands high in the middle of rock strewn crofts. Fields in 1810: Gew (17),Bowgey(27),Hall Bean (=Little Moor',the name of the Downs between Kestle Merris and Trelan), P Treath,Vounder Briton (4),(=Briton's Lane. One Robert Breton was Lord of Trelan,circa 1250. See Kenhewas). KILTER(Kelter 1318,1314,Kilter vean 1656)? same as Welsh Ciltyr, ' comer of land'. Fields Skewis Croft,P an Garrack(6),P an Creague (29) P an Vew ("Cow f').In 1715 Weeth (26) P an Vorne (3)) Round, Croft Dew (Black Croft),P an Lea, P Bean (12) P an Carne, P an Drea (3). LANVEAN now LADDENVEAN (Lanvyghan 1350,1362, Ladenvean 1810). This implies the Little Lan in opposition to Lanheverne which it adjoins. The intrusive d in Ladden Vean is characteristic of late Cornish. LESNEAGE (Lesmanaoc 967,Lysmanahec and Lismanahaeg 1100, Lismaneck 1150),Lismanehev 1144,Lesvenek 1482,Lisnecke alias Lisneag 1621,Lesneage 1720). This interesting name clearly implies the Lis or 'Court of the Meneage' Fields. Park Sleddon or Leddon, Gap Moor, P Crease (16) Gew (17),The Gewal, P Noweth (8),The Daises,Cross Close, The Tuck,Chapel Close (in Tregowris village, where a Chapel of St.James was standing in the 15th C), Park an garrack (6,Road Wriggles and Wriggles Croft (32),Vineyard (31,Quillots (i.e. small fields),Sheaves Close. The earliest document relating to this part of Cornwall is a Charter of King Edgar,(d) dated AD 967, granting to his vassal Wulfnoth Rumuncant three Manors (Manse) in Lesmanaoc (Lesneage) and Pennarth(Penare). The boundaries are thus given, in Anglo Saxon. This is the three hides' landmark at Lesmanaoc. First up at Porthalaw (Porthallow) and along the river against the stream to hryt esell (hryt=ford(e). The name is no longer known but the place was one of the fords on the Mill Mehall Stream. Then South and along the river to Crouswrath (now Crowza or Croshea q.v. near St.Keverne Beacon, see the Grugath Charter). Then forth South to Cestell Merit (now Kestle Merriss q.v. and the Grugath Charter). From Cestell Merit to Crucou Merethen (Crucou = 'Barrows'). Then east straight to Leinbroinn (='the pool of rushes'). This place, named also in the Grugath Charter, must have been somewhere near Trevean). Then to Heyt Catwallon (='Catwallan's Ford').Some ford on the stream near Trelease Mill. Then down and along Cendefrion (Kendevrhon is probably 'head waters' cf Welsh Cynddyfrion -R.M.N). This name, which occurs also in the Traboe Charter of 977, was clearly that of the higher part of the valley and stream going down pas Tregidden to the sea at Gillan Creek, now called the Durrra until the little river, then up and along the river to Fonton geu (Fentou='spring'). From Fonton geu along the dike (hedge) to the herepath(='Military Road'.probably the ridgeway from the Deadman through Tregowris to Menifters, now the northern boundary of Lesneage). Then on down the little dike to the great dike. Then forth on the dike to Fosnoucedu (?the Kiddy Bodden field in Pengarrock). Then down and along the river again to Pordalau (Porthallow). The present Lesneage measures 260 acres and is a large and good farm. It is clear, however, that the Lesmanaoc of 967 was of greater extent. As the Bounds stretched to Porthallow on the east, and Kestle Merris on the south, they must have included Tregarne,Pengarrock,Polgwidnan,Roscarnan,Namboll,Tremenhere, Trevithian,Trevean,Lanarth,Trelease and Polkernogo. Lesneage was given as 'two ploughlands in Lismanehee' by Robert Count of Mortain and Lord of Cornwall (1075-1090) together with Traboe q.v. to the Benedictine Monks on St.Michaels Mount. It remained part of the Manor of Traboe until 1910. In Lesneage is a cottage tenement called Park an Gwarry =?'the field of sport'. At the NW corner of Lesneage is an earthwork standing in a field called the Dodman or Deadman (Demmyn(f) 1536,Dudman 1665). The word is possibly derived from Deumaen,'two stones' Two large stone balls lay by the road side here for many years until they were removed to Lanarth. The name 'Deadman' wth the earthworks and a tradition of a skirmish in the Civil War combine to make the place well known as the site of a battle in the local folk lore. LESTOWDER (Lesteeewder 1403,Lesteudar 1501,Lestuther (1536). In the early 16th C Miracle Play in Cornish based on the Life of St.Meriasek of Camborne, Teudar the King of Cornwall (i) is stated to have a residence at Lesteudar in Menek. the word Les certainly implies a Court of Chief place and Twoder may well be the personal name Teudar. Boteeda in Crowan appears as Bostydyr (=? 'Teudar's House') in 1397. Cartuther in Menheniot (Cructuther=? 'Barrow of Teudar') and Camduder, the old name of St.Just in Roseland seem to contain the same name. From the 'Bounds' of Traboe Common in 1734 we learn that the present highway near Kenhewas was then called Vounder Tudor (?'Teadar's Lane'), In spite of its name, which suggests that it was a piece of importance in Celtic times, Lerstowder was not a Manor in the Middle Ages. A chapel of St.John the Baptist was licensed here in 1103. This probably stood in a field called 'the Hospital', where graves have been found. Possibly the Chapel was connected with the hospital of St.John the Baptist at Helston and there may have been a small Lazar House here as at Nanclegy (q.v) near Mill Mehall. Fields: in 1810 P Peath (=Well f),P an Drea (3),P Nevas,Shallow grease(16),P Spreddpn, P Warra(15),The Hospital (see above),Oise of House Downs,PTrap (33),P Piece,Batches Close and Gamblage. MAIN DALE or MAIN DELL A common probably named from one of the rocks (men) with which it is strewn. MALLACORME, in Rosuick (Mealucorn 1415,Melyckorn Purcy 1469,Meluccorn 1482,Melukorne 1629 and Mellicorne 1655, This tenement is now merged in Rosuick. MENEDLAED in Trelease (q.v) in 1260. No longer known. MILL MEHALL (St.Michaels Mill 1258,1267, Melyn Myhall 1464,Mayhall Mill 1658)='St.Michael's Mill'. This was the Mill of the Manor of Traboe belonging to the Monks of St.Michael's Mount from 1100-1400. In 1258 John de Trembras consented that a Mill leat and sluice should be made on his land of Trembras. For this the Monks were to pay him 6d a year for ever. The present Mill Mehail (no longer working) lies on the side of the stream opposite to Trembrase. A field behind it is called 'the Tuck' which suggests that there may once have been a Tucking of Fulling Mill here too. In the Cartulary of the Mount fo. 29 is a Charter dated 1267 whereby Thomas Comwenian (i.e. Congwidnan now Polgwidden) granted to the Prior of the Mount all his rights in the moor and waters near the Leprrosary of Nanclegy within these bounds, viz: As the highway which is in front of the Leprosary extends towards St.Kyeran, as far as the great stone which is in the way openly on the south and so as far as his (Thomas') barn which is opposite St.Michael's Mill and so the the ford of Nanselegy' with liberty to divert the water flowing in the moor and right of way to their mill for horses and packs. The name Nanselegy is no longer known but & Survey of Congwiddnan or Polgwidnan in 1810 mentions Clugea lane apparently the present hill from Tregowris to Mill Mehall. The Leprosary or Lazar house of which there is no other record, must have stood close to Mill Mehall. NAMBOL (Nanbol 1321,1340, Nansboll 1506,Namboll alias Lamboll 1624)=? Nant poi ' the valley pool'. In the 16th C Namboll was a small Manor held by the Bevilles. James Beville sold it in 1543 to Henry Trengove, of Nance,, whose descendant,John Trengoffe alias Nance esq. sold it in 1710 to John Sandys, of Lanarth with other property for £1800. Fields: Podger, The Crelar,PDevas,Creadle,P Crease (16),Pollstrays,P Bevan,P Jane (44), The Trerise Field. (This marks the site of a merged tenement) - see Trerice. NANSCLEGY near Mill Mehall now Clodgy Lane. see Mill Mehall. Probably for Mans 'valley' and Cla'jy = 'Lazar house'. See Conwidnian. NANGITHER in Tregowris. See Hengither. NANJOWAN in Trembraze (Nansowen 1526,Hanjuan 1840) now merged in Trembrase. NANSERRIS (Nanseares 1318,Nanserys 1506). A holding no longer known. NORTH CORNER near Cadgwith, part of Carnsullan q.v. NYTHVRANE near Chywoon (Noithvran 1300,Nethvran 1327,Nythvrane 1500,Neithcrane 1720). Nyth vran = Crows Nest. cf Cam nith bran in the Traboe Charter 977, Chyvrane in Trythance, etc. PARK AN FOX near Halwyn (Park en Fox 1659). PARK AN PLAIN near Churchtown (Park in Plain 1797, Plain Vean and the Ring 1797). The site, perhaps of the parish Plain an gwarry of Place of Sport(j). These is a Plain an gwarry at Lesneage. PARK AN TIDNO (Park fentyneowe 1543, Parkantednow 1720), i.e. 'The Field of Springs). A curious corruption. Note the intruded d as in Laddenvean. Fields: Rose Jane (34),Carne Hallow, The Praze (13),Garland (?Corlan 'Sheepfold'),Park Hoe. In 1813 Carneggan, PRobins, Galladney, P Weeth (26), and Bullawrence Croft (now Pollarance, a cove in the cliff) = polarghans.'silver pool'. PENBETHAN in Trelease (Penbudin 1269,Penbuthyn 1278),=Meadows End. A name no longer known. PENGARRIC (Pengarec 1291, Pencarrek Wartha and Woeles 1310,Pengarrock = 'The Rock Hill'. Pengarrick was, in 1506, the only remaining demesne land of the great Manor of Rosuie or Lucy's (see Rosuic). About 1300 John de Ripariis, Lord of Roswyk, gave the advowson of St.Melan (Mullyon) to Motesfont Pri6ry (Hants), together with one acre in Pengarec lying between the way which leads from St.Keranus towards Trefgloshee (Treglossack) on one side and his land on the other and which stretched from Trefglosheeee on the E to Tregarn on the W. In 1310 the Priory conveyed this property to the Dean and Chapter of Exeter (k) Pengarrack Mill, in Porthallow, is the only Mill now working in the parish. In 1560 John Reskymer esq., obtained leave from John Tretherll to make a head wear for Pengarrek Mill on his land of Tregomynyon (PRO Anc.Deeds A 13280) and to bring a leat of water to the same. Fields Carne Rocks,Locust of Sloggets, Carnantel.Cost lost (25),Bowgie (27) Twopenny Hill,Burning Mountain, P an fold, Gobbean. PENHALLACK in Treeegowris. PENHALLICK near Ponsangath = PMoorish End. Croft, The Gew (17), Park Nothing (34) PENHALWYN see Halwyn. PENMRNNOR near Church town (Penmeneth 1797, Penminith 1720)==Hill top. PENNARE (Pennarth 967,Penarth 1297,Penharth 1310,Penare 1710)=High Head. The Nare Point in St.Keverne as in Veryan is a shortened form of Pennare properly Penarth cf Penair (for Penarth) in St.Clements. In the Lesmanaoe Charter of 967 (q.v) the Bounds of Pennarth are thus described; 'this is the one acres land mark at Pennarth. First from the sea and along the dike to stream, then along the stream to the sea'. These are evidently the present limites of Penare. Fields: Caernmeers (on the headland),White Rock, Commora or Gulmerrow. PENVOUNDER (Penbonder 1318)='Lanes End'. Fields: Pedney Crousha (i.e. End of Crowza Down),The Praze, Park Eithen (35),Park Vounder (4),Drysock (2),The Gew (17) P Warra (15),P Bew (=Cow f) and P Bean (12). POLBELORRACK (Polveleryk 1543,Polbulorack 1720). A small holding without a homestead now farmed with Roskerwell. It adjoins Treglossack. (Pol belerek,'pool abounding with water cress,'beler R.M.N.) POLCOVERACK (Porthcovrec 1262,Porthcofrek 1318,1331,Pordcofrek 1321)=? 'The Forth of Streams' from gover = water,stream, the th of porth causing g to become c (R.M.N). The village of Coverack bears a shortened form of the name. There is a place called Coverack Bridge near the river Cober or Cover in Wendron. Here the s of Pons, 'bridge',has had the same effect and Pons coverak has apparently affected gover itself. Cober is Cornish for 'Copper'. R.M.N. Fields; The Wreath,Oxeye,The Praze (13), The Gew (17), The Cams. POLDOWRIAN (Bendowran 1300,1517,Bowendower 1641,Pendowren 1649)? 'The Cattle Watering', cf Bondower in Phillack and Dowran in St.Just.R.M.N. suggests that the first syllable is probably Ban=Summit and that the name means 'Head of the Waters'. POLGWIDNAN see Congwidnan. POLGWEST (Polguest 1230,1297,Polgwest 1639,1720),Pol=pool,Gwest = ? a Cornish adaptation of 'West' R.M.N. Fields; In 1715,Park Try Corner (.e. ^Tree Cornered f'),Gew (17), Cost lost (25, in 1812 Annersey,P Chur,Margerots,Vague Gew. POLHERNO (Potheruow 1482,Polhernoe 1615). Pol=pool. hernow may='horse shoes', 'iron' R.M.N. A holding in the valley above Mill Mehall and now merged with Lesneage. POLKERNOGO (Polkernego 1318,Polcrounogow 1431,Polker-nogoe 1684). Pol = 'pool' Crouogow = 'frogs' H.J. and R.M.N. cf Polkernogo in Stythians. For an account of the Mill here, circa 1260 see Trelease. Fields: Park East, The Gew (17), P Crees (16),P an Jane (34),P an Vounder (4). POLKERTH near Traboe (Pollicenn 977,Polkere 1290,Polkerth 1734), Pol Kerghyth (Cor.Voc.Cherhit W.Crychydd) ='Pool of the Heron' R.M.N. POLPIDNICK (Pollpynnyck 1594) . Pol==Pool of Pinock in Power. ?Pol pennek 'big head (tadpole) pool' R.M.N. PONSANGATH. a hamlet in the S.W. part of the parish with a foot bridge and ford ? 'Bridge of the Cat' called Pons St.Gath (!) on a map of 1850 and Pons-en- garth 1870 but Gath seems the old pronunciation. PONSFRANK(Ponsfrancke 1571).A bridge in the parish no longer known. Pons frank, 'free bridge' RMN PONSWRAGH, named in 1506. A bridge no longer known f6r Pons an Wrah,'Hag's Bridge'. PORTHALLOW (Porthalaw 967,Porthalou 1290,1364) pronounced Prallow. An ancient fishing village in the cove where the estates of Park an tidno,Roskerwell and Pengarrick meet. In the Middle Ages it was the chief fishing village of the Meneage and belonged to the Lords Trenoweth (q.v.) Before 1317 John de Calvo Monte, Lord of Trenoweth, granted to the Monks of Beaulieu a plot of land in Porthalou and leave to draw up their boats there. The Monks as Rectors of the parish were owners of the valuable Tithe of fish and the plot was to enable them to build a cellar to store their Tithe. PORTHBEAN (Pordbyghen 1318)=Little Port,near Coverack. PORTHOUSTOCK (Pordeustek 1280,Porthowstock 1543,1720) pronounced Prowstock. Now a larger fishing village than Porthallow, but not so important as in former times. It was part of the Manor of Rosenython. Fields: Gwool Pease,Cuckold peep in. (A cottage on the downs in St.Columb parish. Was called 'Cuckold peep out' in 1815). PORTHKERRIS or POLKERRIS (Porthkersis 1313,Porthkyrthes 1543,Porthkerris 1720) of Porthkerris in Tywardreath and Kerris in Paul. See Polkerth ? Pool of Herons, Kerghydhes. R.M.N. Fields: Cardiggon,Robin,Gew (17),Totens. PRISCAN near Treliever (Priskan 1621,1647,1720) cf Priske in Mullyon and Prisklo in Budock. ? same as Welsh Frysg=BrushWood.Prysgen.'a bush' RMN. Fields in 1812: Carworgy,P en dray (3),Gew (17) Pythan 35),Hallan,Pudden Croft,P Bean (12) Drysack (2), P Warrow (15) and Caveten. ROARING STILE, a tenement near Grugath. Shown on a map of 1850. ROSCARNAN (Rosoarnan 1085,1625). Ros=heath,Carnan=rocky hill. cf Boscarnan. Fields: Pleasure Polsure, Croft,Hoylewind,Hallerdubin, Hallovows,The Gew(17),P Warra (15),P Mean,House me loans,? Pellas (9) and Kestlemenack (=?Stony Castle or Meneage Castle. This field in spite of its interesting name has no traces of earthworks in it. If it implies the 'Castle of Meneage', it may be in opposition to Lesneage (The Court of Lesneage) half a mile distant. Roscarnan must have been included in Lesmanaoc according to the Charter of 967,but it is named as a small Manor in Domesday 1085. It had, however, no Manorial Status in later times. ROSCROWGY (Roscrowdy 1250,Roscreugi and Roscrougi (1285,Roscrougy 1358). Ros= 'Heath'. Crowgy is found as a place name in Gwennap and Constantine, but the old spelling Crypdu show no affinity With Roscrowgy. Roscroudy suggests the 'Heath of the Cot house'. There is a Crowdy on Bodmin Moor. For Roscrowgy field names see Kenhewas. ROSENYTHON (Rosneyden 1250,1318.Rosneython 1262,1332). ?Ros-an- eyuthyn 'the fursey heath or promontary'. Fields: Vobins or Bobhams (once a smallholding). P an Drea (3),P Warra(15),Crinkle or Cringo, Monegan, Kestle Kears (near Manacles Point),? Tonkin,Holts or Halts (? Als=Cliff),Bannel (36),P an grouse (l),Godrivey (see Godrevy), The Reens (37),P Sowell, P Ithen (35),The Billas or Bellows,Vineyard (31),Hunds,P Crees (16),Cappen leggan (on the Cliff),Gweal Peas,Manygullas (=? Lower Hill),Dorgarrack (5 and 6} Kew in ale. The promontary of Rosenython on the East side of the Church town seems to have been originally part of the Church fief, of which Richard Fitz Yve was over lord at the end of the 12th C. Honorata, daughter of his son William, married John fitz Richard de Reskymer in 1249 and carried Rosenython to that house. Under the Reskymers Rosenython was held by the service of one knight's fee 'with two suits in Agomarghogyon' (i) by the family of Le Seneschal, so called from their ancestor who had been Seneschal or Steward of the Barony of Cardynan. John son of Batholomew le Seneschal held Rosneython with Trevlechyon Wartha and Woles (Treloyhan), Tregenfreys (Treginges), Pordestek (Porthowstock), Carnellas and Godevri Mill in 1280. In 1283, Rosneython appears as one of the Tithings or Police Divisions of the Hundred of Kerrier. The Manor passed by successive heiresses from Senescahl to Ceriseaux and de Vere. It was afterward purchased by the Vyvyans. The Manor Mill was at; Godrevy on the shore. ROSKERWELL (Roskervill,1318,Roscurvyll 1333, 1313,Reskoyla 1720),locally called 'Skerlith' or 'Skirlets*. Fields in 1810: Gew (17),P Jenkin,Polbadnack,The Beggal, Weath (26),P an gear (=Castle f. This is no longer known),? Spridden and P Warra (15). In the Middle Ages Roskerwell lay within the fief of Trenoweth. ROSKILLY (Roskelli 1200,Roskilly 1318,Roskylly 1505)= 'The Heath of the Grove'. Fields: The Buttress, P Gurra, P an DSrea (3) P Noweth (8),Gulgullas (38),Game at Cards, Champion Moor. ROSUICK or ROSEWICK (Reshewye 1250, Rosewike 1303,Rossuwyk 1340,Rosuwyk 1425) = ? The Ford of the Hind, Resewhic,cf. Nansewick in St. Alien. Fields: P an vellan (24),P Bean (12),P Noweth (8),Parkers Fd, Gew (17) P Jane (34).Trill,Warha hale (11 and 15),Cowzier,Croft an grana, Gweal Dubnas, The Praze(13), Wartha Ponds or Harrybonds (=Upper Bridge),Gweal Wartha (15),Vuggan,P an garrick (6),Yarn gooth or Johnny gopds (=?Good Garden). In the middle of the 12th C Richard de Lucy, the Chief Justiciar of Henry II acquired extensive estates in Cornwall, almost certainly by royal grant and possibly after some other magnate had forfeited them for rebellion. These estates included lands all over the eastern side of the Lizard peninsula with their centre at Rosuick or Rosewick. These lands were afterwards styled the Manor of Rosewick alias Lucy's. At the Record Office are charters circa 1200 (Ancient Deeds A6580 and A 9460) whereby Godfrey de Lucy,Bishop of Winchester and Rohesia de Duvre (Coheiress of Richard de Lucy) confirmed to Richards Fitz Gilbert (de Reskymer) lands in Tregudyn (Tregidden) Trevithian,Reskelli and Kiniavots (Kenhewas) to be held under them in socage. In this way the whole Manor was gradually alienated to free tenants until by 1506 only the Barton of Pengarrick,near Porthallow, remained. The heirs of Lucy married de Ripariis and Fitz Walter, two great families of Essex. In 1304 Sir John de Ripariis or Rivers sold the Manor of Rosewike to Walter de St.Margaret, a Merchant. It was afterwards purchased by the Carminows and so came by heiress to the Reskymers in the 15th C. Both Rosewik and Lucies are named as Tithings or police divisions of the Hundred of Kerrier in 1283. TEER WASTE properly Trenython Waste q.v. Tyr wast = 'a void island'RMH. TOUCH ME PIPES, a small tenement near Trevithian. The name is an 18th C.Cornish expression for to rest awhile. TRABOE. (Trahorabold 1090,Tregwurabo 977,Treveraboth 1085,Trurabo 1250,Trevrabo 1650) cf. Trebah in Constantine, anciently Treverybou, Tribby in St.Columb Minor (Treribiow,1650). Fields on Traboe and Tregeage: Chapel Parks. (There was an ancient chapel here,Gew (17),Brow,P Nest,P Venton (10),P Leck,Kevuggan,P an Carrack (6),The Nellan,P an oghen'the oxen field'. In AD 977 King Edgar, by a charter now preserved in Exeter Cathedral Library, granted to his Comes or Earldorman, Aetrhelweard, the estates of Trefwurabo (Traboe) Trefvaloc(Trevallack)- Crucwaeth (Grugath) and Trefdewig (Trethewy in St.Martins). The boundaries of these are given separately in Anglo Saxon. Those of Traboe are as follows: This is the land mark to Trefwarabo. First at Pollicerr (Polkerth). Then on by the dike and along the way (probably the ridge way or lane from Treleage Mill to St.Martins). Then off the way, then on the little dike east half way to Poll-haescen('the Pool of Sedge') adown by the brook to Ryt Cendeurion (i.e. the ford of the Cendevrion, which as we have seen in the Bounds of Lesneage was clearly the Upper part of the Durra Stream running through Tregidden to the Gillan Creek). Then by the brook to Cam nith bran (='Crow's Nest Cam. A map of Goonhilly in 1815 shows a Carn-Vrahan(Crow's Cam)planted with a fox covert on the edge of the moor between Kenhewas and Telan) and to Deumaen Corvan (=the Two Stones of Carfan='ridge'. RMN. These rocks probably stood on the downs near Croft Pascoe pool, where the six estates meet). Then on and along the way to Cruedraenock (='Thorny Barrow'). Then on to Carrecwynn (='White Rock') and again to Pollicerr (Polkerth). These bounds seem to include more than the present estate of Trab6e and its Downs, as they extend to the Durra stream on the east, thus taking in Resuic,Roscrowgy and Kenhewas. On the Goonhilly side they appear to follow the lines of subsequent views. In 1290 (m) for instance, Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, confirmed to the Monks of St.Michael's Mount as much of his moor of Goenhil as lay within these limits: From the bound between the vill of Rosiwyk and Trevrabe, then as far as the way near Crucaresken,thence to Honesdu (or Bonesdue),thence to Ponsdonfili,thence to Grelenbesek,(Grelyn='Herd Pool RMN) thence to the great way of Crugdrahenoc then to Crugkennywol and so to the boundary between Crunent (Trewince ?) and Polkere (Polkerth) (n). Again, the bounds of the right of the Manor of Traboe in Goonhilly Downs as viewed in 1734 were as follows: From Resewick Water to the conduit near it from thence to a rock called Venton Ely,(?Fenton yly,'remedy well'RMN) from thence in a strait line (leaving Traboe Borough on the right hand), to a road called Vounder Tudor, and so in a direct line to Meane mellin or the yellow stone (o)from thence in a direct line to the NE corner of Croft Pascoe and along by that hedge in a direct line to a rock very near the corner of the hedge of the Croft to the right hand of SE of the Dry Tree, from thence along by two white rocks lying in a line to the Green Borough, a little to the left hand or north of Polkerth Water from thence strait to Trewince Borough and directly dividing it (one half being Mr.Gregor's the other Sir F.Vyvyan's) and from the Borough to the westernmost corner of Polkerth Croft. By a charter of 1059, King Edward the Confessor, conferred Traboe and the three other estates name in Edgar's Charter of 977 (but not Lesneage) on Bishop Aldred. Not one of them is, however, mentioned in Domesday Book (1085) but the Cartulary of St.Michael's Mount (MS at Hatfield) contains a charter (p)whereby Robert,Count of Mortain, who became Lord of Cornwall about 1075 and died about 1090, conferred on the Monks of St.Michael's Mount, three 'acres' in Manech or Manacich (Meneage) namely Traaraboth(Traboe) Lismanach (Lesneage), Treguavers (Tregevas in St.Martins and Carmaheiek (CarvaUack in St.Martin's) . This charter, though spurious in part, is confirmed in substance by a note in the Custumal of Otterton Priory (MS penes Lord Coleridge) that the Church of St.Michael in Cornwall had by gift of Count Rober two ploughlands in Tremaine (St.Martins),three in Trahorabold, three in Lismanehec,two in Tregavers and two in Carmaheleck, besides pasture for all their beasts (i.e. on Goonhilly). This property, known in the later middle ages as the Manor of Traboe, followed the fortunes of the Mount for over five centuries, passing with it from the Benedictines to the Brigettine Nuns of Syon Abbey about 1420, then to the Crown at the dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, from the Crown by grant to the Earls of Salisbury. One of these sold the Mount on the eve of the Civil War to Francis Basset and sold the Manor of Traboe in 1652 to John Gregor of Trewarthenick. The latter's representative, Sr Lewis Molesworth,Bart. of Trewarthenick sold the Manor in severalties in 1909. In 1283 Trevorabo appears as one of the Tithings of the Hundred of Kerrier. The Cartulary of St.Michael's Mount Priory (MS at Hatfield) contains some 13th C charters relating to its holding in Meneage. The monks built a Grange or 'New Hall' at Gear in St.Martins before 1259- and the place is still called Helnoweth (=New Hall). Below this at the creekhead, they had a mill in 1262, but the chief Manor Mill was St.Michaels Mill or Mill Mehall (qv) in the valley below Lesneage. At Trewarthenick are Court Rolls and other Manorial documents from 1422 onwards. From these it appears that the leasehold lands of the Manor consisted of Traboe,Polkerth,Tregeage,Trelaminny,Polpidnick,Lesneage,Polherno and Mill Mehall all in St.Keverne; Tretharrup,Tregeddras,Trecoose,Carvallock,Gear,Helnoweth and Bonnal, all in St.Martins. Tregevas in St.Martins,Tregidden and Mallacorne in St.Keverne were free tenements paying 'chief yents. TREBARVETH (Treberveth 1270,1310,1364)cf. Trebarveth in Perranuthnoe, Trebarva in Constantine,Resparveth in Probus, etc. The word perveth enters into many Cornish names and aberveth,'within', is a common adverb, cf. Welsh perfedd='middle'. HJ and RMN Fields: Joy Rocks,Park Joy,Henwell, P Olvin. TREDINNICK(Trevedenec 1309,1310,Tredenek 1359,Tredinnecke 1615).Several places in Cornwall bear the name of Tredinnick, but their old forms are widely different. In this case the word appears Treredeenek,'Fern brake Town'. Fields; Gew(17,Jack Snipe Moor. By charter dated 1306 (PRO Ancient Deed A.10294). John de Calvo Monte,Lord of Trenewed (Trenoweth),granted to Pasco de Treredenec,the lands called Nanstrelaec(=Treleage Valley) bounded thus: 'From a place called Crous-Hervy. (This place is still known,see Trenoweth), as the big dike goes to Gweal Kephannoe (Gweal Gavineck in 1543),then north to the land of Treredenec,dividing Nanstrelaec from Trelaec vighan, and so as the bounds divide the land of Clement and Francis of Tregeminion in Morvah,Tywardreath and Landwednack (^'brambly field') to Crous Hervy. TREGAMINION (Tregeminion 1285,Trekeminion 1260,Trecheminion 1270) cf.Tregaminion in Morvah,Tywardreath and Landewednack.The old forms are identical,Tregaminion,and suggest Kemynyon,'commoners'RMN. TREGAMINION (Cont'd) Fields: Bell Field,Gully vase (39) ,Ara berlase or Arrabarless (Erow barlys = Barley Acre),Pull Callnick,Gew (17),f an Pease,Ahnet,Kewenhale (see also Rosenython). TREGARNE (Trekarn 1305,Tregarn 1310 cf. Tregarne in Mawnan.=? the 'Town on the hill' Fields: Park Gullas (38),Bannell (36),Bean Park (12),Ventanleague (pron.Ventalliggy=? Willow Wel),P an Growe (1),Menallack (banallek='Broomy Ground' (q) The Daisey (cf.Lesneage),Guarth,Carthew,P Noon,P Garras,P Dower,P an Drea (3),P Hear (5),Beacon Close (next Roskruge Beacon in St. Anthony),? an garrack (6),Chafers Ground,Turnmullin (=Tyemelyn,mill land) (r) Tregarne was held freely under the Manor of Rosuick Lucy's. In 1404 it was itself esteemed a Manor. The Lord was Sir William Lambron and a Reeve's Roll of that year (MS in Exeter public library) mentions the Manor Mill as being rebuilt. The heiress of Lambron married Arundell of Lanherne and their descendant Sir John Arundell held the Manor of Tregarne in 1659 when a survey of it was made, now in my possession. From this it appears that there were four holdings in Tregarne, three in Helwin and Tregarne Mill. At the general sale of the Arundell estates circa 1800 the Manor was bought by the Lemons of Carclew and so passed by heiress to the Tremaynes. TREGEAGE (Tregeke 1482,Tregege 1484,Tregeag Veor 1623). For field names see Traboe. This was part of the Manor of Traboe until 1909. TREGELLEST (Tregellest 1311,1318,1364) cf. Tregellest in Probus (Trefcelest (1049).'The town of Celest',a personal name. Field in 1767 Park an Trawn. TREGIDDEN (Tregudyn 1200,1364,1505). Fields P an wreck,? an Cairne,P an Noweth,P an Lower (=garden f),Cairne Hay,P Ponds (23),Praze (13),Narrow hale (? an hrow hal) 'Moor Acre', (40,11). Tregidden was held under the Manor of Rosuick Lucy's by the Reskymers, who had the Mill of their Manor of Meneage here. In 1341 the Mill house was called Chyenmelyn and its fields Pack en melyn and Erouw Endemeyn (?'Acre in Demesne'). There was also a Fulling Mill or Tucking Mill on the Tregidden, named in 1506. It stood a little further up the valley, below Trewoon, where a field is still called 'Park Truckshare', 'Gullers Close'.Tenkya, 'to full cloth',which may be corrupted from troghya,'to dip'RMN. TREGINGES or Treginjes (Tregenfreys 1290,Tregefres 1318,Treginges 1697 and 1720).This tenement lies between the Church town and Treloyhan. There is no longer a house upon it. TREGLODJACK or Treglossack (Tregloshee 1291,Treglosacke 1580),Treglossaek 1720),pronouned Lidjack. Fields The Bannell (36),Gew(17),P Wartha or Warra (15). TREGLOHAN (Tregalohan 1270,Tregalaloghan 1283,Tregologhan 1270,1318). Fields: In 1767 P an Skeber(7),P an Ebyer,Porleath,Mavoice or Meanvoice (s) Takeall,|P an Venton(10,P Crees(16),P an Grouse (1). TREGONAN or Tregoning (Tregonan 1240,1303)cf. Tregoning in Breage,Tregonan in St.Ewe='Conans Town' The Barton of Tregoning seems to have been part of the Church lands of St.Keverne at an early date. It was held with them by John Pulein in 1201, when he granted it to Hervey Fitz Gilbert (Reskymer), a clerk. Hervey granted Tregonan with other lands to Sibella, the daughter of Richard Fitz Yve, who with her husband Thomas de Pridias in 1235 surrendered them to the Abbot of Beaulieu,now Parson of St.Kaveran. Tregonan became a 'grange' or demesne farm of the Abbey and in 1359 the Abbot had a royal grant of 'free warren' there. The place was afterwards a small cell of monks from Beaulieu. Leland, who visited it in 1535,states that the monks had gone home to their head house, but the ruins of their Monastery remained. At the fall of Beaulieu Abbey, Tregoning passed to the Crown and thence into lay hands. John Bogans was the owner in 1603,when he was sued by the Tithe owners of the parish for refusing to pay tithes on this Barton on the plea that it had been the demesne land of a religious house and therefore exempt from all tithes. To prove this witnesses were produced who remembered "divers old walls of houses standing in Tregonyn which were called the religiowse houses of Tregonyn and that religiowse men which in tymes past dwelt in the Cell did till and manure the lands to their own proper uses for their maintenance ". One witness aged 80, remembered seeing the ruins of "a religiowse house and a Churche at Tregonyn". Dr. Borlase (u) visiting the place as late as 1755 saw 'several considerable ruins' but they have all disappeared now. TREGOWRIS (Tregevres 1260,1318,Tregaures 1332,Tregourys 1480). Fields The Minnows,? an Tule,Neckett or Meckatta,P an Devas(='Sheep F'),P an Prowlter (? for prownter= 'Parson's f), Whale Drain (=='Thorn f'),P an Jane (34),P Crease (16), P Mean" Pan Abear,P Noweth (8),P an Joy,P an Treath,P an Meage, Pan Vor, P Roy. In 1318 Tregefres and Hengeyther were held by John de Erysi under the Reskymer's Manor of Meneage. They were sold about 1716 by Richard Erisey.Esq. to Anthony Hosken. Hengither is now merged in Tregowris. TRELAMINNY (Trevemyny 1345,Treclamynie 1588). This farm is partly in St.Martins. It belonged to the Manor of Traboe. Fields P Nichol, Gew (17) P Noweth. TRELAN or TRELAN VEOR. (Trelant 1085,Trelan mur,Trelen 1313),probably Tre-lands 'the town on the Landa or Moor', It is still called Treland by old people. Fields P Widden (= 'White f). Mean -Mellin (='yellow stone')? Goon(='Down f'),tormental f,,Few (17),P Bean (12) Carrack Goal(?=Carrek an gog,'Cuckoo rock'),Goag, P Trust,Cost lost (25). Trelan and Trelan Vean are two oases between Goonhilly and Crowza Downs. Trelant appears as a small Manor in Domesday,1085. It was a Tithing of the Hundred of Kerrier in 1283. Robert Breto, was Lord of Trelan before 1250(see Kenhewas) and Osbert Ie Sor was Lord of Trelanmur circa 1260 when he granted the Moor of Goen Wordu to Thomes de Trelanbihan. John Ie Sor held a Knight's fee inTrelanmour,Aranon,Gergredun,Trefinweth,Trewoethyn,Boskernan,Porthco ferek etc. in 1318. The chief seat of the Norman family of Ie Sor in Cornwall was Tolverne but a junior branch held Trelan until Edmun Ie Sor died in 1356 leaving two daughters . From one of these the Manor of Trelan descended to the Petyts of Ardevora and so to the Killigrews.Alexander Killigrew sold it before 1526 to Stephen Gayer of Trerobrase. TRELAN VEAN pron. Trellanvean (Trelanbighan 1250,1300,Trelangyghan 1350).i.e. Little Trelan. Fields In a survey of 1620 Park an Jefferye,Park an Bahowe(see Bahow),Parek and Pras(13),Parke Vean (12),Parke an Skeber(7),Parke an Dreant^ thorn f), Parke and Vorn (3)),Goone Vean (14),Goonenoweth(='New Down'). To these the Tithe Award of 1840 adds. Carrabones (v),P Pyas,The Warren,P Studies,Yewherns garden,? an Drea (3),P Skilly,Longstone and Crowsath. Trelanvean was separated from Trelan as early as 1278 when Thomas de Trelan byghan was Lord of it. In 1285 he was building a mill in the valley near Roscrowgey (q.v) In 1659 Trelanvean was owned or occupied by a well to do farmer, John Hayme. In 1800 it belonged to the Harrises of Camborne and so came to the Hartleys. TRELEAGE (Trelahec l270,Trelac muer and bihan 1300,Treleague 1620). Fields Walk Lane,Cross f. Treleage was bought by a mercantile family of Totnes and Helston called Bogans or Buggins at the end of the 16th C. They built a mansion here of which a part remains in the present farm house. TRELEASE (Trelis 1201,Treles 1280,1325,Trelease 1621) pron Trelayse =?the town of the Court, possibly referring to Lesneage which adjoins it. The Bounds of Lesneage in 967(qv),must have included Trelease but in the 13th C the two estates were in different hands. By Charter circa 1201 John fitz Bernard gave the monks of St.Michael's Mount in perpetuity out of his land of Trelis. Circa 1250 Roger Ie Potier, Lord of Trelis rectified the boundary between his land and the monks land of Lismanahaeg. Circa 1260 Reginald Ie Potier released to Sir Richard de Reskymer the mill in his demesne of Treles and another mill further down the stream at Polcronogou (Polkernogo) and the multure of his tenants in Treles,Lanharth,Trebyhan and Polcronogou with power of distraint, in default of multure, on his land of Menedlaed in the fee of Treles. He also undertook not to erect any other mill at Treles. Trelease Mill remained one of the Manor Mills of the Manor of Reskymer Meneage for several centuries. The mill at Polkernogo disappeared. Fields Millrose,Crowsadack, Clapper Close,Gew (17) , Barling, P Bean (12) and Chapel Close (In this an ancient Chapel once stood). TRELIEVER (Trelyver 1318,1652) c.f. Treliever in Mabe,St.Columb and St.Wenn. Fields In 1812 P Tray(3),P Noon,Drysack(2),P Skewis,Abba Croft,P Bean (12),P Davy,Beagle,? Lower,? en Drain(20),P Vounder (4),P Captain,? Crow,P Warrow (15) P Venton(10),P Hansom,Lackaveer or Lackey Vear (w) Costlost (25), The Plain. Treliever appears as one of the Tithings of Kerrier in 1283. This Tithing was coterminous with the Manor of Meneage Reskymer of which Treliever was the capital. During the middle ages the largest landholders in the parish of St.Keverne were the Reskymers of Reskymer in Mawgan. Gilbert, the first of the family, received a grant of Reskymer from Earl Reginald as Lord of Helston circa 1170. He heads the Reskymer pedigree and is stated to have married Elizabeth the daughter and heiress of Zeiote Paulyn. This marriage probably brought him land in St.Keverne. In the account of Lanheverne we have noticed a John Paulein granting lands in Tregonan, etc. to Hervey, son of Gilber (Reskymer) and John, son of Richard (Reskymer). This was in 1201. Another Charter concerning the same land is granted by one Nicholas, son of Eilant, probably the 'Zeiote' of the pedigree. Gilbert Reskymer appears from these Charters to have had two sons, Hervey, a clerk, and Richard, who succeeded to his inheritance as Richard fitz Gilbert. The latter left a son, John fitz Richard who married in 1249 ((x) Honorata, the daughter of William, son of Richard fitz Yve. This marriage brought the overlorship of Rosenython and other lands on the east coast of the parish to the Reskymers. Their great great grandson was Sir Roger Reskymer, a survey of whose lands made in 1318 is in the PRO (y).The first part of this gives an account of all his lands held freely under him in Menaoch. From this it appears that he was overlord of the greater part of St.Keverne Parish including Rosenython,Treloyhen,Treginges,Carnellas, Grufath,Trewillis,Penvounder,Tregowris,Trelanvean,Trevithian,Trelanveor, Trevalso,Arrowan,Porthcoverack,Chynals,Kilter/Boscarnon,Roskelly, Tregellest,Trenhewas,Treveen,Polkernogo,Lanarth,Trebarveth,Treglohan and Roskerwell. The lands which he held himself are not given but they included Trewoon,Tregidden,Trelease,Treliver,Trevenwith and Priscan. During the 14th C the Reskymer lands came to be known as the Manor of Meneage Reskymer or Reskymer Meneage to distinguish it from their western lands known as Reskymer Cutter. John Reskymer of Merthen, Esq., the last of his race, died in 1566, leaving by his concubine, Margaret Greber, four bastards, all of whom assumed the name of Reskymer and inherited his lands. John, the eldest of these, died in 1602 without issue. William, the second, likewise. Their nephew,John Reskymer, sold the family estates about 1620 to his steward, William Thorns, whose son,John Thorns of Tremayne, sold the Manor of Reskyrner Meneage with the Tithing of Treliever,except certain lands already sold separately, to Samuel Pendarves of Roskrow,Esq. The heiress of Pendarves married Basset of Tehidy and their descendant, G.L. BASSET Esq. sold the Manor of Reskymer Meneage in parcels in 1883. From an extent of 1621 (z)it appears that the Tithing of Treliever belonging to the Manor of Reskymer Meneage was then kore extensive than the Manor. It consisted of 50 tenements, the occupiers of which had to serve as Tithing men in rotation and attend the Courts of the Hundred of Kerrier. TRELOYHAN (Trevleghyon 1260,Trevlechyon wartha and wceles 1280,Trelegyou 1283,Trevelegyon 1318 and Treflegheon 1332) cf Treloyhan in St.Ives (Trefleghyon in 1368 and Carlyon (Caerleghion) in Kea. Fields Franenworth F,Vinock(18), Polter,Golden Acre,The Hunds,Belby Mitchells,Margaret,Well Wrean,Allan Orchard. TRELYN (Trelyn 1318,1586)=?Pool town', cf Pellyn (Penlyn) in Gerrans,etc Fields Benvith (see Trevallack),P Rowe,Court Hays, P Warvell Pgiverwels,'pasture'RMN. TREMBRASE (Trenbras 1085,1302,Trembraz 1258,Trembras Veour and Vyan 1526). Fields in 1810 P Creek (29),P Bastard,Enjowan(see Nanjowan). Though named as a small Manor in Domesday, Trembrase was not afterwards a place of importance until circa 1520 when the heiress of William Trembrase married Stephen Gayer who by purchasing Trelan and adding it to his wife's patrimony, bequested a considerable holding the parish to his descendants, the Gayers of Trembrase. TREMENHERE (Tremanher 1297,Tremaenhyr 1311),cf. Tremenhere in Styuthians,etc,='the town of the Long Stone'.The Menhir or long stone,15feet high is still standing. Fields Park an Drea (3).Blanches,Stag field. TRENANCE (Trenant 1085,Trenans 1310,1586)=Valley Townd. Fields; The Boot, Gew (17),P an garrack (6). On a map of 1960 are shown: Arabellen (=?Mill Acre)Frogabbin (aa)P and Drean (2), P an Davers (=Sheep f), P Vean (12) Trenant appears as a Manor in Domesday but see Trenoweth. TRENOWETH (Trenewyth 1245,1309,Trenowyth Chamond 1543) = New Town. Fields: Merchants Orchard,Lazarus f,Telseys Meadow,Vineyard (31). In 1810: Crous Harvey,Mean Lomber.Lazzy's f and Toprose. Crouse Harvey (i.e. Harvey's Cross) named in a deed of 1306 as Crous Hervy (see Tredinnick) is still the name of the place on the road from Treleage to Porthallow where it is crossed by the footpath from St.Keverne to Tredinnick. It was probably called after a cross erected here by Hervey fitz Gilbert (Reskymer) a clerk, who was Lord of Trenonan circa 1200. There are no remains of the cross today. In Domesday (1085) the Manor o£ Trenant (Trenance) is found in the tenure of Algar. This Manor included Trenoweth, Trenance,Tredinnick,Roskerwell and was afterwards called the Manor of Trenoweth-Chamond. Algar was Lord of Edelet or Alet, near Truro. In 1245 his descendant, William, son of Richard de Alet gave the' Manor of Trenowyth'to Bartholomew de Calvo Monte (Chamond) in marriage with his daughter Isabella. In 1249 he added to this gift the right to take timber out of his wood at Kylmonsote(Calamansack in Constantine) for their house and mill at Trenowyth. This Bartholomew de Chaumond is named in the Patent Roll of 1243 as a merchant of Richard,Earl of Cornwall, who was then bringing a ship of the Earl's laden with corn etc, to Cornwall. His son was John Chamond, Lord of Trenowith who gave the monks of Beaulieu certain rights at Porthallow (qv). Sir John Chamond of Launcells died seized of the Manor Trenowith Chamond in 1543. The Manor Mill was below the Manor house. Trenewyth appears as one of the Tithings of Kerrier in 1283. TRENYTHON (Trenython 1350)cf Trenython in Probus,Rosnython etc ? Trev an eithen 'Town of the Furze'. Fields A map of 1690 shows Goen Vean (14),|P an Skebar(7) P an Plynkin,Cross Park,? Owriggles (32),P an Trapp (33) P an Pinver. In 1840 Reem,Plinker,Gew (17) Wriggles (32). TRENYTHON WASTE (Trenithon Wast 1720) locally called Teer Waste or Trewaste. A small tenement in Trenython. TRESKEWYS (Treskewyec 1282,Treskewys 1332) cf. Treskewys in Stythians,Skewys in Cury,Crowan and Skewjack in Sennan ?'the sheltered town' cf W.ysgiwin, ' to shelter'. Fields Vinocks(18) P an Starve us. Croft Mainer,Gew (17),P an Jora, P Crays (16),P Bean (12),P an grouse (l),Bougy (27),Well crop him, Manacle Croft, Dollys. TRERICE (Treured 1250) now merged in Namboll ' The ford town' cf. Trerice in St.Alien,Ruan Major etc. TREVALLACK (Trefvaloc 977,Trefalek 1297,1313) c.f Carrallack in St.Martins -'Mailocs Town'. Fields Praze (13),0rnersey f, Canullis = Park an olas,'hearth field'.Kings garden, P an Stagan, Gweel Noon,P Ealin, Mens Garden, P Uriin. In 1690: P Eilan, P en Moone, P en devas (=sheep f),P Fringey (bb) P Veathan and Carne mellin (==yellow rock) . In the Traboe Charter of 977 the bounds of Trevallack are given. This is the landmark to Trefvaloc, First to the dike (hedge) then from the dike to the brook, from the brook to Crouswrach(Crowza at St.Keverne Beacon. See the Lesneage Charter of 967) and along the way to the dike, then on to Mayn Bith (Mayn=Rock,Bith =?beth,grave. There is a field on Trelyn called Benwith), to Cruc mur (='Great Barrow') Then on to Cam wlicet and along to the brook, then on and along stream at Tuow Waeter, again by the dike. TREVALSO (Trevaelsereu 1293,Trevalseron 1318,1331,Trevalserowe 1529,Trevalsorrow 1684,Trevalsaw 1553),Trev als erow,'Cliff acre town' This suits its situation. Fields in 1690.Hallnoweth,P Vean,Ulls Vean,Tollhodge. In 1810: Park an Drea,Vaggoe (=cave),Random Moor. In 1840: Take all, Gullgarras,Alice vean (='little cliff),Gull Gwidden (=white f),Landerry and Penderry,Few(17),Praze (13)/P Pridden,Vorgo,P an Drea (3) P Noon,The Randoms. TREVEAN near Lanarth (Trevighan 1270,Trelbichen 1280,Trevyan 1300)=Little Town. Fields: Gweal Forth,Covey Close,? an Ventam (10),P an Skebo(7),Pan Drain (20),P an grouse (1),P Waste, Vinocks (18),The Beanacks, Croft Martins, Rosegless (32),P an Jane (34). TREVEAN near Truthans (Trevean 1600). Fields in 1767: P an grouse (1),P an Drean (20),Vinack (18),P an Skeber (7),Chevrain (see Chyvrane),P an Venton (10), Halventon (10 and 12) . TREVENWITH (Trefinwed 1300,Trefynweth 1333,Trevynwyth 1517,Trevenwith 1649). 'The town of the end' fynweth,RMN. The same word probably comes into Penwith. Fields: Castle Close, The Gew (17),P Bean (12),Carnenpack,Roundabout,Kennack and Park Pavia. TREVITHIAN (Trevithian 1200),Trewydian 1318,Trevithyan 1340,1504)c.f. Mithian in St. Agnes. Fields Clelar,The Godgen,Costlost (29),Grouse vean (1),Pervellin,P Vounder (4),P Veen (12),P Prill,P Nowith(8) Tredinnick,The Gew (17),P Jet,P Drea (3),Gew Pearis,Trewerwell,Croft an Crouze(l),P Potcher, Gew Jane (34),P Pyas. TREVOTHEN (Trewoethyn 1333,Trevoydon 1327,Trevothen 1720). Fields: P Grouse (l),The Dinnick,Darnaby,Hallanponds (11 and 23),Park in Lower,? Perbo,P Weal,Vounder Britain (4),Tresays Hill,P Wriggles (32),P Peas,Lane Veathean,P Noweth (8) P Ebyer, Chedden Meadow, Pan garrack (6),Rose Moon, Jemmy Giles garden,? in Vounder (4),P Innis (island f). TREWILLIS (Trewelles 1300,1318,Trewylles 1517),cf.Gwills (Gwilles) in Gunwalloe. Fields: Gew (17),Barten,P an Butcher,? an Drain (20),Curgear or Curgare,? in Bean (12),? in Hoyles,Darney Bay,? Mean,? Bean (12),P in Carne,Yarmen Peath (? Well garden). TREWOON (Trewoone als Trenone 1650) pron.Truan= 'The town on the Down'. Fields: The Voben=The Ring f.,Tredinnick, P Bean (12),P Trutcher,Trutcher Moor (probably from Vellan drukyer = Fuller's Mill. There was a Fulling Mill close by. In 1812 P Truckshore, Halewidden (=White Moor),Tredinnick and Kirecullion. TRUTHANS or TRYTHANCE (Treyuthans 1327,Trewthans 1620,Truthans 17290). Fields in 1767: Killicarn or Killigarney now Killygarden, P Nage,Furzegwidden,Grambler or Grumbler (i.e.Cromlech c.f. Grumbia in Sancreed and Wendron. These fields lie on the East side of the farm house but no signs of a Cromlech can be seen in them now). Cam Barges (=Kites Carn),P Mage,Morris'Holt,P an Dray (3),Venton Vor (10),P an Greeg (29),P an Oweth (8) = New f. P Bean (12),Dryall,P Nails =Cliff f. The Vounders (4),P an Trawn, Wheal an Drain (20),Clumyer or Clubnier (i.e. Cotumbarium, the field next the farm yard), Jewton, P an Crees (16).In 1810 Drall, Gual Dran, etc. TRYTHANCE cont'd Thythance appears as a Manor in 1620 when John Tregosse of Trewothack held it. In 1311 his ancestor, William de Tregoed and Mabel his wife, obtained a grant of Treinherit (error for Treuthant),Kelter,Chienals, Kelly Tregod,etc., from Richard de Reskymer (?her father),24 holdings in all. These lands passed from Tregosse by successive sales to Vaughan and Refusis. A map of the Manor of Trythance in 1767 is now at Trefusis. VOAGE, a tenement in Arrowan (Bos 1311,Boos 1320,Voadge 1652) cf. Poage in Zennor formerly Bos,Voze in Creed etc. This canot be the same as Bos,'house', which being masculine, would not become Voj. RMN. ZOAR a nonconformist chapel on Crowza Downs -? a Scriptural name or perhaps a corruption of Crowza pron.Crewshare. COAST NAMES FROM GILLAN CREEK TO KENNACK SANDS. Menabers Rock,Gulmerrow,The Nare (properly Penare),Porthbleau(=Little Port),Polnare Cove,Snails Creep,Fletchings Cove,Nellys Cove,Gallentreath,Porthallow,Pollawrence or Pollariance (= pol arghans,'Silver pool'), Polgwarra, Pedn Tiere (=Lands End),Porthkerris,Drawna Rock.MaenTalhac,Penera Head,Levellers,Arrow,Battys Point,Porthoustock,Vervan Rocks,Maen Chynoweth or Morah Rock,The Gunden,Carag luze (=Grey Rock),Maen garrick,Gwinges (Rocks),Manacles Point,Mildran's Rock,Duljyvean Rocks,Giants Quoits(These are rocks on the main land),Cappenleggan Cove,Godrevy Cove,Shaf Rock,The Manacles Rocks including Minstrel Rock, Cam Du and Varses, The Dean (a headland, an dyn (tyn)=='the rump',Maenland rock,Polcries,Lowland point,Great Wrea,Davas Rock, Pedn myin ('Rocks end'),Coverack,Dolor point,Perpean Cove, The Oxen,Polgravel,Chynhalls point or Meers point,Ebber Rocks, Porthbeer,Black Head,Hyrlas Rock,Dinas Cove,Treleaver,Pedn Board, The Bees,Beagle Hole,Meludjack, Beagles Point,Wreathe or Wrath,Downas Cove,Zawn Carve(Zawn=Cave),Buttercove,The Gaider (an gadar'the chair'),Zawn Vinoc(=stony cave),Lankidden,Parlour,Carracklooze(=Grey Rock),Spernic(=Throny),Cam Spernic,Green Saddle,Kennack Sands. NOTE: Pen later 1'edn = a head, or end. Men = 'Rock', Carek = 'Rock', Forth or For = 'Port', Pol = ' Pool', but is usually a corruption of Forth and sometimes of Pen. a) M.S penese C.H. The owner was the Rt Hon.Sidney Godolphin. Arrowan afterwards belonged to John Oliver of Falmouth, whose daughter and heiress married John Willyams of Carnanton. b) Bohednoe is probably the same as Methednoe which suggests the plural of Methen or Medhen, possibly meaning 'luner part' R.M.N. c) R,N,B, suggests Cost yn Cog, 'Cost in Vain', c.f .Cost lost, Labour in Vain and other such field names. d) The word Morrop. i.e. 'By the Sea' is applied to the cliff lands all along the coast from the Lizard to Penzance but does not occur once in the St.Keverne field names. Grugath is far inland. R.M.N adds:Morreps is used by extension of any rich, as opposed to hungry, ground at St.Ives and Morvah, where the best land is by the shore. This is not impossible even at Grugath. e) I am indebted to Mr.R.M.Nance for this interesting and undoubted interpretation. f) MS in Exeter Cathedral Library. g) Professor Loth in his Romans de la Table Ronde suggests The Ford of Iseult. h) R.M.N. writes: The earliest form, Demmyn, suggests An Dommen (tommen) 'a bank' or 'earthwork' later tubment tubben. It is not very unusual to find the intrusive d before n and b before m confused. 'Dudman (or tomrnen occurs at Leiant') of Dudman in Kenwyn and the Dodman Headland. Dydemin was the old name of St.Martin in Meneage. i) See an article on King Teudar, by H.Jenner, FSA, in Tre.Pol and Pen 1928. j) Most Cornish parishes had playing fields in the 17th C and earlier. Some of these were amphitheatres for the performance of Miracle Plays e.g. Perran Round. The common field name Park an Butts indicates where the parishioners practised Archery according to the Statute for the Defence of the Realm. k) Archives of D and C No.3672 fo.64 and No.1437. PRO Anc.Deeds A.13280. 1) This word occurs in Reskymer Rentals of 1318 and 1506, but I have not found it elsewhere. Marghogyon is the plural of Marghak 'Knight', so that the word possibly refers to some kind of Knightly Service of Scutage, Ago may be for agoth cf Welsh 'agwedd',Breton 'aon''form','condition' R.M.N. m) Charter in the Cartulary of the Mount at Hatfield, printed in Oliver's Monasticon, p. 32. n) MS at Trewarthenick. o) Maen mellin is a rock on the parish boundary near Croft Pascoe Pool where six estates used to meet. Counver Tudor must be the present main road near Kenhewas. p) See Canon Taylors,Celtic Christianity of Cornwall, p.160 for remarks on these transactions. He thinks that the monks of the Mount held these lands in Celtic times but this seems improbable. q) Manellek ' abounding in sheaves' R.M.N. r) Or Dor-mulyon 'clover ground' as at Tremeader in Zennor R.M.N. s) Probably Men voys,'table rock' R.M.N. t) Consistory Court Proceedings,Exeter Cathedral M.S.S. u) MS notebook in Truro Museum. v) For Park Erow Bons,'Bridge Acre' R.M.N. w) 'Great Leaf Lacca. x) Pedes Finium,Cornwal 118. y) Rentals and Surveys 6-38 x) M.S. penes C.H. aa)? For'gabm for Forth gam, 'Crooked way' bb) Perhaps Forth hyney,'way of roads'. There was a Gweal Fringey at Probus. APPENDIX. Key to the Commoner Field Names. 1. Park is the usual word for an enclosed field. Gweal another common word seems to have been used for a larger open field. 2. Park angrouse for Park an grows (crows)= 'the field of the Cross'. Several fields in St.Keverne bear this name but the only cross remaining in the parish is at Trelanvean. Cross park, the English equivalent is also found but this seems to have a reference to cross roads. 3. Drysock for dreysak = Brambly or 'Bramble brake'. 4. Park an Drea, or Dray, for Park an dre(f),(tref) = the 'field near the town' i.e. the farm place. 5. Vounder for An Vender (Bonder)= 'the Lane'. Hence Penvounder = Lanes End. 6. Dor here for Dor - hye = 'Long Ground'. Dor is found all over West Cornwall as a term for a field. 7. Park an garrack for Park an garek (Carek)= 'the field of the rock'. 8. Skeber,Skebo, etc, for Skyber = 'a barn'. 9. Park Noweth = 'New Field'. 10. Pilles for Pyllas = 'Bare Oats'. 11. Venton (fenten)='Spring' or 'Fountain'. 12. Hales (hal) = 'Moor'. 13. Park Bean (byghan)= 'Little Field'. 14. Prase (pras) = 'Meadow'. This word is still used to denote plots of land by the wayside of St.Keverne Parish. 15. Goon(gun) = 'Down'. Vean (Vyghan) = 'Little'. 16. Warra for Wartha (a-wartha)='Upper'. Gwartha = 'top'. Wollas (a-woles = 'Lower'. Goles = 'Bottom'. 17. P Crease for P-Cres = 'Middle Field'. 18. Gew? 'the enclosure'. Generally the field near the homestead, the first to be enclosed for grass. 19 Vinock for an-veynek = 'the place full of stones'(meyn). 20. P-Gullas (goles) = 'bottom field' RMN. 21. P an drain ='Thorns Field'(Dreyn). 22. Gilly and gelly (Kelly)= 'the Grove'. 23. Menor for Meneth = 'Hill'. 24. Ponds for Pong = 'Bridge'. 25. Vellan - au velyn (melyn) = 'the Mill'. 26. Cost lost, a common name in Cornwall, possibly a witticism introduced by the Tinners. 27. Weith,perhaps Park Gwyth,'trees field'. 28. Bougy for boudi, later boujy='Cow house'. 29. P Darrows,i.e. 'the field before the door' (darras). 30. Creague for crug,cruk= ' a barrow'. 31. P an Vorne (forn)= 'Oven field'. 32. Vineyard. Several fields in St.Keverne bear this name, possibly a mistranslation of Vinock,stony - see 19. 33. Wriggles for forth eglos, pron. V'r'eglos = 'Church way (field)' 34. Trap, the cornish for a stile. 35. P Jane, for yen = 'cold field' RMN 36. P Eithen (eythyn = 'Furze field'. 37. Banel = 'Broom'. 38. Reen (ryn) = Slope or hill side. RMN. 39. Gulgullas = Gwel goles,'bottom field'. 40. Gullyvase for Gwel a ves = 'outer field'. 41. Arra for erow = 'Acre'.